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Rawls Freeman,-Samuel.||

 
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MessagePosté le: Ven 20 Mai - 17:34 (2016)    Sujet du message: Rawls Freeman,-Samuel.|| Répondre en citant




Rawls Freeman, Samuel|| > urlin.us/2bn9w





Rawls...employs...the...idea...of...a...hypothetical...social...contract...for...more...general...purposes...than...his...predecessorsEven..if..it..be..conceded..that..rational..choice..and..agreement..in..the..original..position,..or..reasonable..agreement..in..a..well-ordered..society,..do..not..provide..independent..reasons..for..principles..of..justice,..still..they..serve..the..crucial,..perhaps..necessary..role..of..organizing..the..reasons..that..the..original..position..incorporates..and..authorizing..inference..to..the..principles..of..justiceMoreover,..public..principles..of..justice..can..serve..agents..in..their..practical..reasoning..and..provide..democratic..citizens..a..common..basis..for..political..argument..and..justificationMill,..Sidgwick,..Edgeworth,..etc.)..These..and..other..questions..regarding..the..kinds..of..economic..systems..supported..by..variants..of..the..principle..of..utility..are..empirical..questions..which..cannot..be..resolved..by..philosophyThe..common..theme..throughout..the..original..position..arguments..is..that..it..is..more..rational..for..the..parties..to..choose..the..principles..of..justice..over..any..other..alternativeMembers....of....various....professions....and....trades....have....institutional....powers....and....prerogatives....that....are....characteristic....of....their....position....and....which....are....necessary....if....they....are....to....carry....out....their....respective....roles....and....responsibilities(It....clearly....does,....I....think,....show....one....way....in....which....fair....equality....of....opportunity....might....be....harder....to....achieve....than....we....otherwise....might....have....thought,....something....Freeman....is....well....aware....ofSo....if....they....do....not....sincerely....believe....that....they....can....accept....the....requirements....of....a....conception....of....justice....and....conform....their....actions....and....life....plans....accordingly,....then....these....are....strong....reasons....to....avoid....choosing....those....principlesIm..not..sure..what..I..think..about..the..issue,..but..its..obviously..one..that..needs..to..be..thought..about..very..clearly..and..given..more..attentionNewsBut....political....obligation....is....also....grounded....in....the....public....utility....of....people....respecting....political....authority....and....obeying....its....lawsThis..conception..incorporates..their..primary..aims,..ambitions,..and..commitments..to..others,..and..is..informed..by..the..conscientious..moral,..religious,..and..philosophical..convictions..that..give..meaning..for..them..to..their..livesThe...fairness...of...the...original...agreement...situation...transfers...to...the...principles...everyone...agrees...to,...and...further...that...whatever...laws...or...institutions...are...required...by...the...principles...of...justice...are...also...fairFree...and...equal...persons...have...their...own...plans...of...life...and...special...commitments...to...others,...as...well...as...different...philosophical...and...religious...beliefs...and...moral...doctrines...(TJ...127/110)Otherwise....they....will....not....be....in....a....position....to....cooperate....with....others....and....benefit....from....social....lifeThis...is...the...“priority...of...right”...over...the...good...(TJ...31f./27f.),...which...for...Rawls...represents...the...structure...of...practical...reasoning...of...moral...personsFor...it...requires...that...the...parties...adopt...a...common...impartial...standpoint...and...make...a...considered...rational...choice...under...conditions...that...require...them...to...abstract...from...their...particular...interests...and...circumstancesFor...the...principles...of...justice...imply...that...no...matter...what...position...you...occupy...in...society,...you...will...have...the...rights...and...resources...needed...to...maintain...your...valued...commitments...and...purposes,...to...effectively...exercise...your...capacities...for...rational...and...moral...deliberation...and...action,...and...to...maintain...your...sense...of...self-respect...as...an...equal...citizenThis....is....handy....for....two....reasonsI...do...think...there...is...some...strong...evidence...for...accepting...recent...interpretations...of...Rawls...as...founding...standards...of...social...justice...in...existing...practice,...particularly...in...his...The...Laws...of...Peoples11..Dan..Kervick..12.11.07..at..12:20..am..2)..Relatedly,..Rawls..improved..the..standards..of..philosophical..argument..in..political..theoryIt....is....a....feature....of....our....moral....psychology,....Rawls....contends,....that....we....normally....come....to....form....attachments....to....people....and....institutions....that....are....concerned....with....our....good;....moreover....we....tend....to....resent....those....persons....and....institutions....that....act....contrary....to....our....good(See....JF....135–140,....158–162,....178.)....For....these....reasons,....and....since....a....property-owning....democracy....also....secures....the....fair....value....of....equal....political....liberties....and....fair....equality....of....opportunities,....a....property-owning....democracy....provides....a....more....secure....basis....for....citizens'....sense....of....self-respect....(the....remaining....primary....social....good....covered....by....the....difference....principle....in....part)....than....does....welfare-state....capitalismThe...traditional...idea...of...pre-social...or...even...pre-political...rational...moral...agents...thus...plays...no...role...in...Rawls's...account...of...justice...and...the...social...contract;...for...him...the...state...of...nature...is...an...idea...without...moral...significance...(PL...278–280)This..implies..that..people..will..not..be..uninformed..or..have..false..beliefs..about..the..bases..of..their..social..and..political..relationsThe..reason..Rawls..sees..publicity..and..universality..as..necessary..relates..to..the..conception..of..the..person..implicit..in..justice..as..fairnessRawls..said..at..one..point..that..“reflective..equilibrium..works..through..the..original..position.”..The..suggestion..is..that..the..original..position..itself..supplies,..in..large..part,..the..relevant..sense..of..“best..fit”..of..considered..moral..convictions..with..principles..of..justiceIm....hoping....that....by....making....this....much....easier....for....them....Freemans....text....will....make....it....easier....for....me....to....spend....more....time....criticising....Rawls....in....classGA..conception..of..justice..based..on..unanimity..in..these..circumstances..would..indeed..be..weak..and..trivial”..(TJ..141)As..a..result,..the..parties..have..to..take..seriously..the..legal..obligations..and..social..sanctions..they..will..incur..as..a..result..of..their..agreement,..for..there..is..no..going..back..to..the..initial..situationThese...basic...institutions...include...the...political...constitution,...which...specifies...procedures...for...legislating...and...enforcing...laws...and...the...system...of...trials...for...adjudicating...disputes;...the...bases...of...the...economic...system,...including...the...norms...of...property,...its...transfer...and...distribution,...contractual...relations,...etcHe....tries....to....reconcile....liberty....and....equality....in....a....principled....way,....rather....than....arguing....in....favour....of....one....against....the....otherIn...effect...they...all...have...the...same...general...information...and...are...motivated...by...the...same...interestsThis...seems...to...suggest...that,...even...if...the...veil...of...ignorance...were...not...as...thick...and...parties...did...have...some...degree...of...knowledge...of...the...likelihood...of...ending...up...in...one...social...position...rather...than...another,...still...it...would...be...more...rational...to...choose...the...principles...of...justice...over...the...principle...of...utilityRawls..says..we..can..“enter..the..original..position..at..any..time..simply..by..reasoning..in..accordance..with..the..enumerated..restrictions..on..information,”..PL..27)..and..taking..into..account..general..facts..about..persons,..their..needs,..and..social..and..economic..cooperation..that..are..provided..to..the..partiesYouTube 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MessagePosté le: Ven 20 Mai - 17:34 (2016)    Sujet du message: Publicité

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